Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) occurs due to disruption of the process of formation and development of the heart since the fetus in the womb. This is caused by disturbances in valves, heart chambers, septums (sealing walls between the heart chambers), or blood vessels to and from the heart, resulting in impaired blood flow to and from the heart.
CHD is characterized by symptoms such as bluishness or panting breath. However, depending on the type of congenital heart disease experienced, some CHD does not cause bluishness. CHD is distinguished into cyanotic (bluish skin) and asianotic (skin does not turn blue).
Can Children with Congenital Heart Disease Be Vaccinated?
Keeping children with PJB healthy is important to maintain good expectations and quality of life. Moreover, children with CHD are susceptible to diseases such as pneumonia, upper airway infections (ISPA) and meningitis or inflammatory membrane infections of the brain. Vaccination plays an important role in preventing the disease.
Often what causes the patient to be hospitalized is not because of his heart disease, but the infection experienced by the patient. For example, children with CHD have a higher risk of ISPA occurring. This is due to more blood flow to the heart than normal, and causes enlarged volume of lung tissue. PJB patients infected with ISPA take longer to recover than patients without CHD.
Can the vaccine be given to cyanotic or asianotic CHD babies? Yes, the vaccine can be given to both types of CHD, but it is necessary to evaluate and consult with a pediatrician, about the needs of the child.
The provision of vaccines in children with CHD should be given according to the schedule recommended by IDAI. However, it should be noted in PATIENTS PJB sometimes found also immunosuppression conditions due to immunosuppressive drugs, namely drugs to suppress the immune system. On the other hand, immunosuppressive drugs make children with CHD more susceptible to infection.
Therefore, it is necessary to pay special attention to the condition of the patient when going vaccinated, whether in a healthy condition or not, what medications are being taken, and what actions have been and or will be performed on children PJB.
Types of Vaccines Given to Children with CHD
As for some vaccines need to be considered, especially vaccines containing viruses or live bacteria that are weakened, because if the child’s condition is not healthy, even risk to cause infection in patients. The weakened vaccines are:
- Measles, Mumps, Rubella
- Polio (oral)
- BCG (for tuberculosis vaccine)
Live attenuated influenza vaccine
For the vaccine mentioned above does not mean it should not be given to patients with CHD, but the administration needs special attention from a pediatrician, because if the child’s condition is not healthy even risk causing susceptible to infection.
Other vaccines such as pneumococcus are also no less important, especially in patients after CHD surgery or bypass surgery. The provision of vaccines also need to be considered if it has been done or planned for the operation of PJB, it should be arranged in such a way that the vaccine time is not too close to the schedule of operations, namely:
- 2 weeks – 1 month before surgery
- 2 weeks – 1 month after surgery
But it is not always the same, so it can be consulted first with your pediatrician. So any decision to delay or vaccinate is appropriate and your child is protected from the risk of preventable disease infection.